Presbyopia, or age-related farsightedness, is a refractive error that occurs as a person ages. It is characterized by the progressive hardening of the lens, which is directly related to the refraction within the eye, and it gradually reduces the ability to focus on near objects. Although it can occur in people with visual problems such as myopia or hyperopia, presbyopia is a disorder that occurs earlier and has a greater impact on hyperopic individuals, with presbyopia worsening over time.
- Hardening of the eye lens.
- Poor nutrition.
- Continuous close work.
- Eye strain.
- Hereditary factors.
- Visual fatigue or blurry vision.
- Difficulty reading small print.
- The need to hold reading material farther away than arm's length.
- Trouble seeing nearby objects.
Presbyopia is detected through a comprehensive eye examination with pupil dilation to assess the cornea and lens. This examination is performed at an eye clinic under the supervision of a specialist ophthalmologist. It is recommended that if you notice any changes in your vision, you should visit an eye specialist and undergo more frequent examinations after the age of 40.
Types of Presbyopia
- Physiological Presbyopia: this type of presbyopia is the natural result of aging. As we age, the eye lens loses its ability to change shape and focus on near objects. Physiological presbyopia occurs gradually and is a natural process.
- Medication-induced Presbyopia: some medications can cause or worsen presbyopia. Medications that can affect the eye's ability to focus on near objects include antihistamines, antidepressants, and blood pressure medications.
- Pathological Presbyopia: pathological presbyopia is caused by an underlying disease or condition, such as diabetes, Parkinson's disease, or multiple sclerosis. In these cases, presbyopia may progress more rapidly or be more severe than physiological presbyopia.
- Pre-existing Presbyopia: some individuals may have pre-existing presbyopia before the age of 40 due to conditions such as myopia, hyperopia, or astigmatism. In these cases, presbyopia may be more challenging to treat and may require special corrective lenses.
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